My Annotated Bibliography

Hello Folks and Friendly Types!

If anyone remembers I posted about a month ago about writing a serious paper in regards to PED/TRT in MMA. In the class we had to write an annotated bibliography which required us to use specific tolls to find sources. What follows is a rather quick look at several sources ranging from Sports Illustrated to a law school journal. Notes or advice on how to proceed would be appreciated.

Connor Dillon

GEC 132 - 1PM

Annotated Bibliography

September 29, 2012

Prof. Turk

Performance Enhancing Drugs and TRT in Combat Sports

Abramson, Corey, and Darren Modzelewski. "Caged Morality: Moral Worlds, Subculture, And Stratification Among Middle-Class Cage-Fighters." Qualitative Sociology 34.1 (2011): 143-175. Academic Search Complete. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. The authors, Corey Abramson and Darren Modzelewski, immerse themselves in the culture of mixed martial arts, by watching, participating, and cornering fighters at many events, while interviewing multiple people at various levels of the sport. They wrote this paper as an attempt to open up the culture of mixed martial arts to scholarly individuals that do not understand why people risk life and limb for glory in the arena. The audience the authors are focused on are scholarly individuals as well as a broader audience of those who are interested in mixed martial arts.

Al-Shatti, Shaun, Ariel Helwani, et al. MMA Fighting. SB Nation - Vox Media, n. d. Web. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. <>. Much like the previous source, this is an online website with multiple authors. It is the most reputable MMA news site, with Ariel Helwani consistently getting one on one interviews with the President of the UFC, Dana White. Most articles I will draw upon will have quotes from fighters and members of athletic commissions, and I will also use radio and video interviews held with various members of the MMA community.

Brookhouse, Brent, Dallas Winston, et al. Bloody Elbow. SB Nation - Vox Media, n. d. Web. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. <>. There are multiple articles I will pull from this website, most of which are journalistic pieces written by the staff. They vary from pushing to keep TRT legal for athletes to burning athletes alive for using it during competition. Some question why it is allowed, and others ask why the different states don’t have the same laws. The audience are most MMA fans.

Drugs In Sport : The Pressure To Perform. n.p.: BMJ Books, 2002. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 30 Sept. 2012. According to the author(s), doping in sports is a complex and difficult problem to solve. Using facts from studies performed by the British Medical Association (BMA) and citing guidelines set down by the International Olympic Committee, the author(s) decide that the best course of action in regards to doping (the illegal use of a prohibited substance) in sports is to have a policy that can react to a situation rather than a cookie cutter or one type fits all code. The audience the author(s) are most likely trying to persuade are those in charge of regulating sports or activities that require drug testing.

Fitzpatrick, Meagan. "Doctors want a ban on mixed martial arts; Say violent fights can put participants at a high risk of serious brain damage." Gazette Montreal 26 8 2010, Final A13. Web. 30 Sep. 2012. Meagan Fitzpatrick, writer for the Gazette Montreal, wrote on the topic of Canada’s leading doctor association the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) voted to call for a ban on mixed martial arts in Canada. She uses quotes from the president of the CMA, Anne Doig, as well as quotes from Gordon Mackie who proposed the ban idea. From my perception, Ms. Fitzpatrick is attempting to inform readers of a group of medical professionals that would ban a sport, but really only describing one side of the effort. The intended audience is no doubt the fans of mixed martial arts and the UFC.

"For The Record." Sports Illustrated 116.16 (2012): 16-17. Academic Search Complete. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. In this magazine article from Sports Illustrated, the information I would use the most is the "Failed" seciton, where a description of Alistair Overeem’s failed drug test landed him in hot water with UFC President Dana White. As announced by the Nevada State Athletic Commission, he failed the test when his testosterone to epitestosterone levels were recorded as 14:1. They used sources from NSAC releases as well as quoted Dana White saying, "[He’s] an absolute moron, a brain-dead absolute ****ing dummy."

Mareck-Engelke, U., H. Geyer, and W. Schänzer, eds. "Recent Advances In Doping Analysis." . Sport und Buch Strauß, 1998. Web. 1 Oct 2012. This scholarly paper deals with the Australian Sports Drug Testing Laboratory (ASDTL) and the Australian Sports Drug Agency (ASDA) putting numbers together of athletes and their testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E) levels over the course of several years. They editors compiled evidence and using various chemical tests, found that the ‘normal’ T/E levels for male athletes was a mean value of 1.15. The authors/editors wrote this paper to transcribe data to discover the rough mean of a male athlete’s T/E ratio, so as to better inform lawmakers of cheaters and ways to combat over-the-top T/E levels. The audience are any endocrinologists interested in data regarding T/E levels of male athletes, lawmakers, and sports enthusiasts everywhere.

Pampel, Fred C. Drugs And Sports: Library in a Book. Infobase Publishing, 2007. Print. Fred Pampel writes an engaging pieces discussing the thoughts and reasonings behind using drugs in sports, mainly anabolic steroids. He cites historical facts such as numerous Olympic level drug scandals and also calls upon expert testimony from individuals such as Marc Ratner, the chair of the Nevada State Athletic Commission. Mr. Pampel is trying to inform the audience about the various uses and types of drugs used in sports, as well as describe the side effects from the viewpoint of a sociologist. His audience would most likely be students trying to find a good starting off point for their papers.

Weinreb, Michael C. "Drug Testing Hasn't Grown With a Sports." New York Times 03 7 2007, Late Edition - Final D2. Print. Michael Weinreb’s main argument is that the sport of mixed martial arts has exploded in popularity, but the drug testing for the sport is still decades behind it. Citing sources such as several high-profile fighters failing tests as well as quotes from industry leaders such as the general counsel for the United States Anti-Doping Agency Travis Tygart, Mr. Weinreb attempts to push mixed martial arts promotions to perform random drug testing. The audience this article pertains to the most is a combination of influential fans and the participants of any and all mixed martial arts contests.

Wilson, Ulysses S. "The Standard of Care Between Coparticipants in Mixed Martial Arts: Why Recklessness Should 'Submit' To The Ordinary Negligence Standard." Widener Law Journal. 20. (2011): 375-420. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. Ulysses Wilson writes from the basis of law on how individuals in MMA competitions should be held accountable for their actions in the ring/cage. The motivation for why someone punched even after knocking out an opponent, and using the basis of the Dan Henderson versus Michael Bisping fight, he describes how tort law should be the basis of action in the fights. He wrote the paper in an attempt to bring athletes under control from outlandish actions in the cage. The intended audience are lawmakers.

Sorry for the tight spacing and any spelling errors.

\The FanPosts are solely the subjective opinions of Bloody Elbow readers and do not necessarily reflect the views of Bloody Elbow editors or staff.

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